Science:青蒿(Artemisia annua)基因组测序成功

2010-01-15 admin Science
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青蒿

据1月15日的《科学》杂志报道说,研究人员已经破解了青蒿(Artemisia annua)这种植物的遗传密码,该植物可产生出一种可用来抗疟疾的天然物质。研究人员说,这一基因图谱可在将来为人们带来更多的该抗疟药的储备。

Ian Graham及其同僚对该植物的全部信使RNA分子(即其转录物组)进行了序列测定,并找到了产生药物的特别基因和其标记物。 研究人员接着在实验室中载植了数代的青蒿以确证他们的发现。他们证实,这种在中国已经栽种了1000多年的药用植物可被转变成为一种更为健壮的全球性作物。

他们记录了该植物转录物组的那些可用来提高其农业产量、降低生产成本并保证来自该植物的抗疟药青蒿素可持续供应全球的区域。 青蒿素是一种被广泛使用的治疗致命性疟原虫Plasmodium falciparum(恶性疟原虫)的有效疗法中的关键成分。这种以青蒿素为主的治疗预计会在不远的将来在全世界范围内增长。

在一则相关的Perspective中,Wilbur Milhous 和Peter Weina对青蒿的基因图谱以及其蕴含进行了更为详细的描述。

原始出处:

Science 15 January 2010: DOI: 10.1126/science.1182612

The Genetic Map of Artemisia annua L. Identifies Loci Affecting Yield of the Antimalarial Drug Artemisinin

Ian A. Graham,1,* Katrin Besser,1 Susan Blumer,1 Caroline A. Branigan,1 Tomasz Czechowski,1 Luisa Elias,1 Inna Guterman,1 David Harvey,1 Peter G. Isaac,2 Awais M. Khan,1 Tony R. Larson,1 Yi Li,1 Tanya Pawson,1 Teresa Penfield,1 Anne M. Rae,1 Deborah A. Rathbone,1 Sonja Reid,1 Joe Ross,1 Margaret F. Smallwood,1 Vincent Segura,1 Theresa Townsend,1 Darshna Vyas,1 Thilo Winzer,1 Dianna Bowles1,*

Artemisinin is a plant natural product produced by Artemisia annua and the active ingredient in the most effective treatment for malaria. Efforts to eradicate malaria are increasing demand for an affordable, high-quality, robust supply of artemisinin. We performed deep sequencing on the transcriptome of A. annua to identify genes and markers for fast-track breeding. Extensive genetic variation enabled us to build a detailed genetic map with nine linkage groups. Replicated field trials resulted in a quantitative trait loci (QTL) map that accounts for a significant amount of the variation in key traits controlling artemisinin yield. Enrichment for positive QTLs in parents of new high-yielding hybrids confirms that the knowledge and tools to convert A. annua into a robust crop are now available.

1 Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Department of Biology, University of York, York YO10 5YW, UK.
2 IDna Genetics Ltd., Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK.